Miles to Mordor

Originally from the plains of the American Midwest, I was galvanized at a young age to get out, explore, and find mountains. I have a passion for hiking, traveling, and learning about the history of the places I explore – sometimes I also write! 

Why Miles to Mordor? Growing up, I saw my hometown as the Shire (of course I read the Lord of the Rings at a young age) and though happy, I did not have the adventures my soul longed for. Ever since leaving my hometown after high school, every step has taken me farther from home. Like the characters from my favorite book, I am on a journey, although mine is far less perilous. What better way to live your life than to see it all as one big adventure?

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The End of Night – Bogard

The End Of Night by Paul Bogard Commonplace Book Entry

Author: Bogard, Paul

Genre: Creative Nonfiction

Category: Nature/Science, Conservation, Darkness


I flinch when I read the words “vanished” darkness as I have been fortunate to see truly dark skies in the American West and in other remote areas. Yet I understand what Paul Bogard professes when he says that the dark sky is “vanishing”. In his treatise aptly titled The End of Night, Bogard brings attention to the fact that generations born now don’t even know what they have lost when it comes to describing a dark and starry sky as light pollution is commonplace. How can you protect something that you don’t even know you are losing?

The End of Night presents a compelling argument for a resource that needs protecting; darkness. Through his book, Bogard not only paints a dire picture of a future without darkness but also calls for readers to take action by rekindling an inherent love for wild places and their connection to darkness.

Important Points

Light Pollution as Metaphor or The End Of Night

One of the main culprit’s to rampant and ever growing light pollution is unregulated and widespread lighting. Examples of this lighting can be found both commercially and in homes across the world. Parking lots with widespread beams that are on all night. Homes with security lights and wall packs flooding into their neighbors living rooms. These lights make us feel safer from the monsters and robbers who roam at night but Bogard reveals that the research says otherwise. This harmful and wholly inherited stigma related to more lighting and less crime is detrimental to our health and clouds the skies with escaping light; obscuring even some of the more distant and darkest skies. 

As a metaphor, light pollution is an example of a perennial and contemporary issue in society today; waste and excess. This waste and excess has unfortunately long been both a marker of industrialized society but more importantly speaks to a mindset that characterizes society today – ignorant of the impact and blind to the future. Though, when it comes to conservation, most people think of wildlife populations, carbon emissions, and rising sea levels, Bogard and other conservationist’s stress that dark skies are another metric in which to measure the impact of human’s on the environment. 

Why protect the Sky?

Bogard and others before him stress that the night sky and darkness is not something just to be appreciated for it’s beauty. Aesthetics aside, the night sky is one of the last wild places. Why preserve Wildness? Like quality sleep is essential for the human body, wildness is essential for preserving the world and the biome we call home. It is a quality much taken for granted until you notice when it is lacking. Bogard stresses the world that exists after dark and how this wildness is essential for sustainable life.

Aside from impacting the nocturnal world and the species that exist after dark, by taming the night sky and flooding it with excess light, we disconnect ourselves from the lessons we can learn from wild places. Philosophers and conservationist’s emphasize that on an existential level, our ability as a species to question our place in the universe keeps us humble and moral as our significance is clearly before us every night. We disconnect ourselves from the rest of the universe when we cloud the night sky. 

National Parks as Reservoirs

Without action, we will continue down our blind path of waste and excess. Light pollution is only one example of this mindset. Concerning darkness, Bogard introduces many organizations that are fighting to preserve darkness and wildness across the world. Groups like the International Dark Sky Association have already made strides in spreading awareness  in order to preserve swathes of land and sky for future generations. Bogard stresses that the National Park Service is one such opportunity for night sky preservation and “Dark Sky Reservoirs”. These preserved pockets of darkness are not invulnerable however. As we know, unprotected lighting from neighboring cities encroaches on even the darkest skies today. An increase in awareness and a change in values, values that stress long term conservation of our finite resources as well as the impact of our decisions on the rest of the world, must be adopted by individuals and organizations alike to preserve the night sky for future generations. 



“One of the penalties of an ecological education is that one lives alone in a world of wounds. Much of the damage inflicted on land is quite invisible to laymen. An ecologist must either harden his shell and make believe the consequences of science are none of his business, or he must be the doctor who sees the marks of death in a community that believes itself well and does not want to be told otherwise” – Aldo Leopold


“Night, full of newly created stars that leave

Trails of fire streaming from their seams

As they soar in inaudible adventure

Through interstellar space:

how, overshadowed by your all-embracing vastness, 

I appear minute! —-

Yet, being one with the ever more darkening earth, 

I dare to be in you.

– Rainer Maria Rilke 

Preserving Wildness:

“…Though it is now dark, the wind still blows and roars in the wood, the waves still dash, and some creatures lull the rest with their notes. The repose is never complete. The wildest animals do not repose, but seek their prey now; the fox, and skunk, and rabbit, now roam the fields and woods without fear. They are Nature’s watchmen, – links which connect the days of animated life.” – Thoreau

Similar Books/Further Reading

Walden by Thoreau, Henry David

The Outermost House by Beston, Henry

The Forest Unseen by Haskell, David

International Dark Sky Association

Paul Bogard’s Website

Previous Commonplace Book Entries

Being Wrong by Schulz

Mindset by Dweck

Mastermind by Konnikova

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Changing Chapters

Below is some advice related to a common phase in life which I have dubbed “Changing Chapters”. This phase is characterized by any major change; change in status, a big move, or a career change. The phase that follows any of these changes is a time of growth, development, and maturity; if you let it. 

“Changing Chapters” is my way of shifting your mentality and perspective regarding the changes in your life (which may or may not be up to you). This shift puts you in the driver’s seat and ultimately allows you to be intentional with your decisions. 

Psychologically we are speaking about changing our locus of control; external to internal, when we are discussing intentionality and focusing on growth. This shift is paramount to taking personal responsibility for your life. Maybe that does not get you to where you want to be or does not line up with what you first intended but people who feel like they are the primary actors in their own lives and are not being acted upon by life, see life differently. They enjoy life when they see that their actions have consequences. Life can be a grand adventure.

Inevitably, due to hedonic adaptation, after any change, you quickly settle into a new normal and the uniqueness or novelty of the new environment or circumstances fades away, however, seeing these changes as “Changing Chapters” can make each chapter meaningful and provide a backdrop with which to reference and frame the lessons you learn and experiences you have, good or bad. I mention hedonic adaptation because even if you do not see your changes (the new job, new house, or new school) as a platform for growth and meaningful change or seeing these changes with this mindset shift, you will quickly become used to any change. It’s a normal process built into our bodies. Why not seize the opportunity and take responsibility for your growth?

Ideal Apprenticeship

I have always admired the writing of Robert Greene. In each of his books he presents powerful lessons tied in with interesting historical anecdotes about famous people from history. These anecdotes serve to provide a human outline around each lesson, humanizing the advice and grounding it for me. 

In Mastery, Greene provides a framework for what he calls “The Ideal Apprenticeship”. This ties in nicely with our “Changing Chapters” mindset. The Ideal Apprenticeship characterizes the time that follows your “formal education”. It is a time of transformation, where you develop real experience and skills. One can see how this may allude to the “twenty-something” population but this mindset can apply to anyone.

“The goal of an apprenticeship is not money, a good position, a title, or a diploma, but rather the transformation of your mind and character – the first transformation on the way to Mastery”

Now, contrasting with formal apprenticeships, where your schedule is set and at the end of an allotted time and certain commitment to work you receive a position, I think it is important to ascribe your own chapter to your phase and ultimately create your own syllabus, your own apprenticeship.

Greene illustrates a great example of this idea of seizing the opportunity and crafting your own chapter with his example of the notable explorer and naturalist Charles Darwin.

Charles Darwin is known for his theories and explorations of the Galapagos islands aboard the infamous HMS Beagle. His theory of natural selection and book “On the Origin of Species” is commonplace. What I find most remarkable about his story is his time aboard the Beagle and I believe it is a great example for “Chapter Change” and embracing growth and development.

Charles Darwin, Image Source: National Geographic

At the age of 22, Darwin was unclear as to what he wanted to do with his life. He had recently graduated college but was listless and unfulfilled. “Green” and observant but lacking discipline, this reflects most young people without a single purpose. Shortly after college, Darwin was offered a position as a naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle per a recommendation from a previous professor. After some initial doubts, Darwin accepted the position, writing to the captain, “My second life will then commence, and it shall be as a birthday for the rest of my life”. 

HMS Beagle, Image Source: Brittanica

Embracing his time on the Beagle and this new chapter before him, Darwin grew tremendously after the five year voyage but not without initial hurdles. As a template for our thinking, I’ve broken down the stages of Darwin’s development and how that translates to “Chapter Change” and Greene’s “Ideal Apprenticeship”.

Shift in Strategy:

Early in the voyage, Greene describes Darwin as a man out of place. He was depressed, doubtful with his decision, and lonely. Darwin had felt foolish for signing on to this ship. Greene describes his loneliness as crushing, where the crew eyed him “strangely”, and he began to regret his decision.

Feeling helpless, Darwin decides to do on the ship what he would do when he experienced “turmoil” at home, return to nature and observe the life around him. This shift in strategy illustrates Darwin’s shift in thinking. He asked himself, How can I make the most of the time before me? 

Darwin began to start taking meticulous notes about the world he was observing; the mannerisms of the sailors, the tendencies of the captain, and the prevalent attitudes that characterized life at sea. 

This shift in strategy propelled him into this “Chapter Change”. Seeing opportunity with the time before him and taking responsibility for his own actions. 

Popular contemporary philosophers allude to this shift in strategy and mindset as: Alive time vs Dead time. 

Develop a system:

As Darwin learned to embrace his new chapter before him, his loneliness dissipated and he immersed himself in his new world. After several months aboard the Beagle he arrived in Brazil and his wait was rewarded with a world overflowing with life; “a naturalist’s paradise”.

Early into his voyage, Darwin recognized that the wealth of variety of vegetation and wildlife he was observing was too broad. How could he decide what to collect and what to send back to England?

“He would have to expand his knowledge. Not only would he have to spend endless hours studying everything in his sight on his walks, and take copious notes, but he would have to find a way to organize all of this information, catalog all of these specimens, bring some order to his observations.”

Darwin recognized the task before him as not only one of a shift in strategy but rather, to reach his goals, he needed to improve his skills and create a system of order in his life. He recognized what skills and qualities he was lacking and created a syllabus for himself in order to reach his goals.

I allude to syllabus as the education system is a great way to put a framework to this thinking. As formal universities and college systems weigh on curriculum with classes building upon one another, when designing my goals I approach them in this sequential fashion; identifying the qualities and skills necessary for growth specific to my goal and then building a curriculum or syllabus from there. 

An example from history that gives me inspiration in regards to designing my own syllabus is from a letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr written in 1785. In this letter, Jefferson provides a classical framework for his young nephew to follow with the goal of developing a strong base of knowledge revolving around history and thinking in order to introduce him into society with a Well Educated Mind.


Upon his return, Greene remarks on Darwin’s growth through the eyes of his father, “His whole manner was different – a seriousness of purpose and sharpness could be read in his eyes, almost the opposite look of the lost young man who had gone to sea years before”.

Embracing his time aboard the Beagle and seizing the opportunity that his new chapter presented him led Darwin on a path of growth and development that he may not have achieved if he stayed in his comfortable original position back in England.

One can see how “Changing Chapters” is a relevant mindset for any stage change in life, however, there is a certain significance held for those on the cusp of adulthood. Entering the adult world and leaving the comfort and security of childhood can be a daunting task. I would like to conclude with some advice I have gathered (and benefited from) for those people who are emerging into adulthood and wish to apply this mindset of “Changing Chapters”.

Leave Home:

You may emerge from your adolescent years with a lifeline behind you. This is an attractive yet potentially growth limiting path. The struggle and discomfort that comes from making your own decisions and bearing those consequences is essential to your formation. 

Get Real Jobs:

Use this time to gain real work experience. I recommend working in a manual labor job or food service; jobs with little consequence except they teach you the height of the hourly wage and reinforces the need to develop real skills. Real jobs recalibrate your perspective on skilled labor and unskilled labor with the consequence of orienting yourself towards the need to develop the former as well as learn how to work with another part of society (what some term “the middle”). You will emerge with an improved perspective, improved ability to navigate social dynamics, as well as a humbling affect on your ego (experiencing the service industry as a server will change your appreciation and perspective when you are served in a restaurant in the future).

Identity Capital:

This is a complement to the previous point. “Identity Capital” is a term coined by psychologist Dr. Meg Jay. Identity capital is described as a collection of personal assets or experiences and is useful in identifying the possible weight of a job or decision and its consequences. She describes “Identity Capital” as, “the currency we use to metaphorically purchase jobs and relationships and other things we want…These are the investments we make in ourselves, the things we do well enough, or long enough, that they become a part of who we are…Identity capital is how we build ourselves – bit by bit, over time”. It is important to highlight that when choosing work, whether it is a “real job” that we described before or something else, it is important not to choose a placeholder position or what Dr. Jay would describe as “underemployed”. You should be seeking jobs that give you real experience (ideally experience  that cumulatively is aiming towards a goal) and not get jobs where it just appears like you are working.

Keep Learning:

Finally, upon emerging from school or university into the real world, it is very attractive to dispel with the textbooks and “turn off” the brain. Your learning is done. You’ve learned everything already. This is an empty notion. I have found that following school has been my greatest time for learning. In fact, I emerged from school with a profound sense of inadequacy in terms of knowledge, a consequential urgency to create a curriculum for myself and follow it, and finally a newfound love for learning that I did not have when the lessons were prescribed to me. Leaving the structure of school and being forced to create my own structure gave me a profound feeling of responsibility for my own learning. This path of responsibility has left me challenged and ultimately satisfied. It has also led me to a career path that offers the same opportunities for growth and learning in the future. (A career I identified following time in “Real Jobs” and developing “Identity Capital”).

Recommended Reading:

Mastery by Robert Greene

Well Educated Mind by Susan Wise Bauer

The Curmudgeon’s Guide to Getting Ahead by Charles Murray

The Defining Decade by Dr. Meg Jay

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin

I hope this mindset of “Changing Chapters” can be helpful to you. Taking responsibility for your learning and trajectory in life is a powerful thing. Even if the path is not what you expected, having the power and perspective to embrace the chapter before you, learn what you can from it, and consequently grow, is transformative. I hope this mindset serves you in some small way. It has for me. 

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Diving Deep

Let this serve as a reminder for myself to fill “the unforgiving minute” with sixty seconds worth of distance run.

Diving Deep means layering my experiences, learning deeply about topics, and researching things and places I wish to explore. Chronicling this experiment could help others but personally it will reinforce my decisions and galvanize me to adhere to my own principles of living fully.

Now, how can I Dive Deep?

  • Where are you?
    • Can you read about your location’s history?
    • Is your family connected to it?
    • How was it formed?
  • Who am I?
    • Where are my people from?
    • How did they impact the land that I currently inhabit? The country I live in?

Sitting with simple questions like these can propel you to learn more, instantly. The knowledge gained is never wasted and will serve to add another layer to your experience.

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